One-person GmbH – The GmbH model for solo founders! By appointing new shareholders or leaving existing shareholders, the GmbH model you choose can easily change. Whether it’s a one-person company, a two-person limited company or even a company that operates without any shareholders at all…. In either case, there are specifics you should be aware of as they deviate from the norm of the traditional limited company. Here you can find all legal forms and here, you can go back to the overview GmbH.
One-person limited liability company: corporation for 1 person
The formation of a limited liability company requires at least one person. One-person companies tend to be the exception, but from a purely legal point of view, mono-corporate one-person companies are certainly permissible in the case of the GmbH as well as the Aktiengesellschaft (AG). In the case of a limited liability company, the term “one-person GmbH” – alternatively also “one-man GmbH” or “Einmann-GmbH” – is often used.
Other GmbH models with special features:
Emergence of solo founders – self-decision, exit & e. K.
The one-person GmbH can come into being in three ways: Either you consciously decide to become a solo founder, or you were originally in a two-person GmbH or multi-person GmbH and have been reduced to a one-person company by the withdrawal of the other shareholder(s). Alternatively, you are a registered trader and have the necessary share capital to change your legal form to a one-person GmbH.
Tip: If you basically do not want to manage your GmbH alone and divide the capital burden among several heads, but still want to decide alone on the structure and wording of the articles of association, you can form a one-man GmbH in the first step and take on any number of additional shareholders in the second step. The decisions you make in the pre-incorporation phase then automatically apply to the new shareholders as well.
Special features of the one-person GmbH: § 181 BGB and § 3 GmbHG
With a one-man limited liability company, you are automatically the sole shareholder and take the position of managing director. You also participate in the shareholders’ meetings in a so-called personal union. Apart from that, the same rules and laws apply to you as to companies with several shareholders. This also means that you must form all the corporate bodies prescribed for a GmbH – for example, the supervisory board. For this reason, it is particularly important that as sole managing director of a single-member company, you exempt yourself from the single standard “insichgeschäft” (section 181, see above) laid down in the German Civil Code.
In the case of a one-person GmbH, the shareholders’ agreement does not have to be notarised prior to registration in the commercial register and is therefore usually quite short, taking into account the minimum content required by the Limited Liability Companies Act (GmbHG). However, you need a non-receivable unilateral declaration of intent to complete your registration, and this in turn must be certified by a notary.
Excerpt from the law – § 3 GmbHG:
(1) The memorandum and articles of association shall contain:
- The company name and registered office,
- The object of the company,
- The amount of the share capital,
- The number and nominal amounts of the shares that each shareholder takes over in return for a contribution to the share capital (nominal contribution).
(2) If the company is to be limited for a certain period of time or if other obligations towards the company are to be imposed on the shareholders in addition to the payment of capital contributions, these provisions must also be included in the company statutes.
Establish a GmbH: Legal form and alternatives
- No-person GmbH: inheritance, gift, termination
- Two-person GmbH: Founder Duo
- Limited liability company (GmbH)
- Special case: Real estate GmbH
- Legal forms: List
No-person GmbH: inheritance, gift, termination
No-Person GmbH – The model for a GmbH without shareholders! By appointing new shareholders or leaving existing shareholders, the limited company model you choose can easily change. Whether it’s a one-person company, a two-person limited company or even a company that operates without shareholders at all…. In each case, there are specifics that you should be aware of as they deviate from the norm of the traditional limited liability company.
Two-person GmbH: Founder Duo
Two-person GmbH – The GmbH model for founding duos! By appointing new shareholders or leaving existing shareholders, the GmbH model you choose can easily change. Whether it is a one-person company, a two-person GmbH or even a company that operates without any shareholders at all… In each case, there are specifics you should be aware of as they deviate from the norm of the traditional limited liability company.
Limited liability company (GmbH)
Limited Liability Company (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung, GmbH) – The limited liability company is a German legal form that is founded by at least one person and managed by at least one shareholder. As the name already indicates, this corporate legal form is characterized by a limitation of liability for its shareholder(s).
Special case: Real estate GmbH
Immobilien GmbH / Vermögensverwaltende GmbH / Immobiliengesellschaft – In this article you will learn the basics about real estate companies. Who would think of founding a limited liability company when buying a house or a condominium? Admittedly, this makes no sense for owner-occupation, but it does for renting.
Here you will find all the legal forms that can be chosen as a founder in Germany and a guide with a checklist:
Legal forms: List
Legal forms – What types of company are there? If you want to start your first company, then choosing the ideal legal form is one of the first steps in the process of setting up a company. Whether it’s a special real estate company or a start-up, I’ve summarized all the types of companies in Germany for you here.