# Income approach: Apartment, house & apartment building – Real estate valuation

Income capitalization approach – When is the income capitalization approach used? How is the multiplier calculated? When to use the capitalised earnings value method and the asset value method? How is the capitalized earnings value of a property calculated? There are many questions to answer, the best answer is to have an expert on your side for property valuation.

Overview

## Income capitalization approach: how does the calculation work?

The capitalised earnings value method determines the capitalised earnings value of the property and is used to value properties that are expected to generate an economic return. The capitalised earnings value is meaningful when yield considerations are at the forefront in the case of rented properties and commercial properties. Capital investors and investors in particular can use the capitalised earnings value to compare alternative forms of investment. In the case of commercially used or rented properties, the determination of the capitalised earnings value is also the basis for the mortgage lending value of the property.

### Market value of the land and the building income value

The capitalised earnings value method divides the property into the market value of the land and the building income value. This includes rental income, maintenance costs and costs for managing the land and building. Accordingly, the rental income less the management costs and the land value including its interest are compared.

### Calculation example: Income value – simply calculated with Lukinski

For the calculation of the income value of your property, we assume the following information as an example. This information can then be used to calculate the values of the gross annual amount and the annual net income as well as the operating costs.

• Area: 200 square meters
• Price: 7 euros per square meter
• Operating costs: 25 percent
• Property interest rate: 7 percent
• Land value: 100.000 Euro
• Building damage: 3.000 Euro
• Expiry date: 12,50

### Calculation of annual gross amount, annual net income and operating costs

• Annual gross profit = 200 sqm * 7 Euro / sqm * 12 months = 16.800 Euro
• Operating costs = 16,800 euros * 25 percent = 4,200 euros
• Annual net income = 16,800 Euro – 4,200 Euro = 12,600 Euro

So after deducting the costs, 12,600 euros are left over from the annual rental income. The following continues to apply:

• Land value interest = 7 percent * 100,000 euros = 7,000 euros
• Preliminary capitalised earnings value = 12,600 Euro – 7,000 Euro = 5,600 Euro

### Calculation: Building income value and capitalised earnings value

For the building income value, the provisional income value is multiplied by a multiplier. The multiplier is a key figure calculated from the property interest rate and the remaining useful life. The longer the remaining useful life of the building, the higher the multiplier. To determine the income value, any structural damage is then deducted from the building income value and the market value of the land is added.

• Building income value = 5,600 Euro * 12.50 (multiplier) = 70,000 Euro
• Earned value = 70,000 euros – 3,000 euros + 7,000 euros = 74,000 euros

### Let the professionals do the math

Our team of investors will be happy to draw up yield calculations for your desired property. Prospective buyers can be convinced of good returns. Upon request, we will inform you of the data required for the calculation. After receipt of the documents, we take over the determination of the capitalized value and give you a first estimate of the yield.

## Valuation for the sale of real estate

All important information about the valuation of real estate sales summarized for you: Valuing a property.

### Material value method: Value for the new construction of a property

The calculation first uses the standard land value to determine the market value of the land, then the real value of the building is added.

The real value of the building is calculated on the basis of the building’s production costs less any reductions for age. The real value of the land (market value of the land) and the real value of the building are added together and multiplied by a real value factor.

Value in kind = (100,000 Euro + 150,000 Euro) * 0.5 = 125,000 Euro

The calculation of the asset value factor is based on the building type, the preliminary asset value and the standard land value. The total tangible asset value determined in this way indicates the financial resources that would be required to rebuild the property.

• Real value method

### Comparative value method: Comparison of similar properties

The comparative value method compares your property with similar properties. It is used in particular for the sale of owner-occupied apartments and houses. The comparative value can also be determined for undeveloped land.

Price per square metre of the comparable property = 300,000 Euro / 100 sqm = 3,000 Euro per sqm

Purchase price of the property to be valued = 3,000 Euro * 200 sqm = 600,000 Euro

Only properties in similar locations and with a comparable layout are considered in the comparison. The properties included in the valuation should come from the immediate vicinity of the residential property. The comparative value method is considered to be particularly realistic. It is frequently used to determine the value of properties because the locations are relatively comparable from a regional point of view.

• Comparative value procedure

### Value appraisal (costs)

Who prepares appraisals for real estate? What does a house appraiser cost? What does an appraiser for old buildings cost? Unless legal regulations require the appointment of an expert, a real estate appraisal will provide you with a realistic valuation of your property in the regional and national market. We provide timely and accurate valuations of land, residential and commercial properties.

However, if the valuation is to be presented in court, for example in the case of a divorce, experts must be consulted for a fee. The residential or rental property is inspected on site. As a rule, both a written and a digital copy of the appraisal are issued.

• Valuation report

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